Cataract Surgery A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Most cataracts are related to aging. Cataracts are very common in older people. By age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. WHAT CAUSES CATARACT? The lens lies behind the iris and the pupil. It works much like a camera lens. It focuses light onto the retina at the back of the eye, where an image is recorded. The lens also adjusts the eye’s focus, letting us see things clearly both up close and far away. The lens is made of mostly water and protein. The protein is arranged in a precise way that keeps the lens clear and lets light pass through it. But as we age, some of the protein may clump together and start to cloud a small area of the lens. This is a cataract. Over time, the cataract may grow larger and cloud more of the lens, making it harder to see. WHEN ARE YOU MOST LIKELY TO HAVE A CATARACT? The term “age-related” is a little misleading. You don’t have to be a senior citizen to get this type of cataract. In fact, people can have an age-related cataract in their 40s and 50s. But during middle age, most cataracts are small and do not affect vision. It is after age 60 that most cataracts steal vision. WHO IS AT RISK FOR CATARACT? The risk of cataract increases as you get older. Other risk factors for cataract include: Certain diseases such as diabetes. Personal behavior such as smoking and alcohol use. The environment such as prolonged exposure to sunlight. WHAT CAN I DO TO PROTECT MY VISION?? Wearing sunglasses and a hat with a brim to block ultraviolet sunlight may help to delay cataract. If you smoke, stop. Researchers also believe good nutrition can help reduce the risk of age-related cataract. They recommend eating Greens leafy vegetables, fruit, and other foods with antioxidants. If you are age 60 or older, you should have a comprehensive dilated eye exam at least once every two years. In addition to cataract, your eye care professional can check for signs of age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and other vision disorders. Early treatment for many eye diseases may save your sight. PROCEDURE 1. Creating corneal incisions to allow the surgeon access to the lens 2. Removing the anterior capsule of the lens 3.Fragmenting the cataract (so less phaco energy is required to break it up and remove it) 4.Creating peripheral corneal incisions to reduce astigmatism (when needed).